Category: Church History

‘Nailing’ the essence of the Reformation: Key catchphrases

We’ve finally reached 31 October 2017 – 500 years since Luther nailed his 95 theses to the Wittenberg  Church door on All Hallow’s Eve in the hopes of sparking a debate within the Catholic Church about the nature of repentance and the appropriateness of indulgences.

There are many ways we can celebrate this momentous anniversary, but there’s little point in any of it if we don’t understand what the Reformation was really about. Here’s a very brief guide to the essence of the Reformation, through the lens of the key catchphrases that summarise the truths that Luther, Calvin and their colleagues contended for so vigorously.


“Scripture Alone” (Sola Scriptura)

Protestants believe that many people and things in our lives can carry authority, provide information or act as guides to us. But “Scripture Alone” means we recognise the Bible as the only infallible (i.e. unfailing and therefore reliable) Word of God that conveys His supreme authority to our lives. There are many voices in the world with much to say about God, sin, salvation, happiness and how we approach life now and our eternal future. But only the Bible is inspired by God (see 2 Timothy 3:16) and teaches with certainty “all things that are necessary for life and godliness” (2 Peter 1:3, LEB).

This belief stands in contrast to the traditional view of the Roman Catholic Church, in which the Pope and priestly hierarchy have the authority to interpret the Scriptures for the laity (i.e. the common people) and make determinations about what people should believe and how they should live.

“Grace Alone” (Sola Gratia) 

This refers to the basis for our salvation. God doesn’t save people because they are good, because they do good, or because they’re clever enough to figure out the truth about Him and believe. God saves people who are dead in their sins because of His own gracious and kind disposition towards them. No one earns or warrants salvation at any stage of their lives – if we receive eternal life it’s completely due to God’s mercy and generosity.

This is in contrast to the Roman Catholic view that, in addition to God’s grace, we are saved on the basis of what we do and what we become.

“Faith Alone” (Sola Fide) 

This is inseparable from “grace alone,” but it refers to the means by which we receive justification (our right standing or right status before God). God counts the Christian as righteous due to their union with Christ by faith. The believer is fully right in God’s sight from the moment they trust in Christ and what He has done for them (i.e. His perfect obedience, death and resurrection) and they are never more justified than they were at that point.

This is in contrast with the Roman Catholic system, which taught that faith plus works contributed to our receiving of salvation and that our co-operation was absolutely necessary in the process.

“Christ Alone” (Solus Christus)

This refers to the question of who acts as mediator between us and God and whose help we need in order to be saved. Protestants believe that salvation only comes through the person and work of Jesus Christ (Acts 4:12) and that we approach God through Jesus alone – as the only Person who is simultaneously divine and human. We relate to God and receive life from Him, through faith in Jesus – and not through any other means or mediators.

This stands in contrast to the Roman Catholic system of many heavenly mediators we can call upon for help (Mary, saints, angels) and earthly priests who stand between us and God/Christ.

“To the Glory of God Alone” (Soli Deo Gloria)

Because an individual can take no credit for their own salvation by grace, and because their church, or priest (or a heavenly mediator like Mary) cannot be credited with bringing about their salvation either – God alone receives all glory for saving sinners. The purpose of our salvation, in the Protestant faith, is for God to be glorified as a merciful and powerful Saviour.

This stands in contrast to Catholicism where the Christian who enters heaven is partly responsible for their arrival there and the Pope, Church, priests, Mary, saints and others can receive some of the credit for aiding them in their salvation.


The Threefold Office of Christ (Triplex Munus)

This refers to Jesus being God’s “anointed one” (Messiah/Christ) in three specific senses. He is the Ultimate Prophet who reveals God and His will to us like no one before or after Him has done. He is the Great High Priest who makes atonement for our sins and grants us unrestricted access to God. He is the Supreme King who rules over all and helps us conquer sin, Satan and the world.

This idea was not invented in the Reformation (it’s much older), but as an extension of the Reformers’ belief in “Christ Alone” this understanding of Jesus as Prophet, Priest and King became an antidote to the Catholic system of unnecessary spiritual mediators. Jesus spoke directly to believers through the Word – God did not have to reveal new things about Himself through priests. Jesus opened the way for intimate communion with God, by His blood – Christians didn’t need to come through priests, Mass or the saints. Jesus ruled as King – believers could follow and obey His orders without being enslaved to the invented rules and teachings of the Catholic hierarchy.

Priesthood of All Believers (Presbyterii fidelium)

This is a key idea that flows out of the one directly above. The Reformation abolishes priests as a special religious class, because Jesus Himself did so as our High Priest. All believers, young or old, educated or uneducated, married or single, were priests in the true sense and had the privilege of access to God through Christ and the responsibility to pray and care for other believers.

Back to the Sources” (Ad Fontes)

A cry of the humanistic Renaissance that became an important principle for the Reformers. The Reformers did not take the Catholic Church’s word for granted when it came to how the Christian faith should be understood and practiced. Instead they went back to the prime source of our faith, the Holy Scriptures, and searched them for themselves. They also read the works of Christians from earlier centuries in an effort to discover what had always been understood as true and what had gradually been introduced or invented by the Church. This was a crucial principle that allowed reform to take place.

Repent” (Poenitentiam Agite)

The 95 theses that instigated Luther’s programme of reform hinged partly on how to understand the Latin phrase for repentance.

Luther rejected the idea that repentance amounted to doing the acts of penance prescribed by the Catholic Church and instead saw it as a genuine spiritual turning from sin that was expressed in appropriate outward behaviour. Forgiveness from God was not attained through religious performances, donations or any action of the penitent. It was freely granted on the basis of God’s grace to those who turned from their sins and exercised faith towards Jesus Christ.

Here I Stand…” (Hier stehe ich)

When Luther was called before the Diet of Worms (a political and religious assembly in the Holy Roman Empire) to give an account for his beliefs, the Catholic authorities called upon him to renounce what he had been teaching.

Luther famously replied,

Unless I am convinced by the testimony of the Holy Scriptures or by evident reason-for I can believe neither pope nor councils alone, as it is clear that they have erred repeatedly and contradicted themselves-I consider myself convicted by the testimony of Holy Scripture, which is my basis; my conscience is captive to the Word of God. Thus I cannot and will not recant, because acting against one’s conscience is neither safe nor sound. Here I stand, I can do no other. God help me. Amen.

The phrase has become a catch-cry for subsequent generations of Protestant Christians as a symbol of bold defiance towards Catholic pressure to betray the truths the Reformers rediscovered in the Scriptures.

After Darkness – Light” (Post Tenebras Lux)

This phrase has come to serve as a motto of thankfulness and hope in relation to God’s deliverance of His church out of the spiritual darkness of medieval Catholicism through the light of the gospel recovered at the Reformation. It recalls the messianic hope of Isaiah 9:2 “The people walking in darkness have seen a great light; on those living in the land of the shadow of death a light has dawned.” (NIV).

Christians before 1517 were kept in the darkness of ignorance by the church that refused to give them access to the Scriptures in their own language. They were at risk of eternal darkness because the gospel of Christ was obscured by erroneous teachings. But wherever Protestantism has spread, God has brought light to His people through His Word and the clear preaching of the Gospel of His Son.

Always Reforming” (Semper Reformanda)

Some churches self-identify as “reformed” in reference to the fact that their beliefs and practices have been shaped by God’s Word and the principles emphasised during the Reformation. But while there are no grounds to reinvent Christianity every generation or re-evaluate the core truths that Christians have always understood as both biblical and essential – there remains a need for Christians to have the desire to be continually reformed by the Word of God.

The motto Semper Reformanda drives a stake deep into the heart of the attitude that says “We’ll keep doing things this way at church, because it’s just the way we’ve always done it.” It demands constant obedience to God’s Word and re-evaluation of doctrine and practice when Scripture shows us to be deficient in some areas. We do not foolishly reject history and tradition for an approach that seeks to change the church based on what we “feel” needs altering. But we do recognise that we have not finally arrived at perfect theology, Christlikeness, piety or obedience and that God will continue to show His people where we need to repent and be reformed – until the return of His Son to rule over us directly for all eternity.


Happy 500th Anniversary of the Protestant Reformation!






Protestant Profiles #30: Martyn Lloyd-Jones

D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones (1899 – 1981)


Born: Cardiff, Wales
Role: preacher, author, evangelical statesman, president of IVF and chairman of IFES, Westminster Conference organiser
Emphases: firm commitment to evangelical principles, sola Scriptura, justification by faith alone, substitutionary atonement of Christ, need for regeneration
Protested against: liberalism, ecumenicalism, Catholicism, neo-orthodoxy, evolutionary theory

David Martyn Lloyd-Jones had a promising career as part of the London medical establishment ahead of him when his life took a dramatic turn. He experienced a spiritual conversion from nominal Christianity to true, living faith in Christ and began to develop a deep desire to preach the gospel in vocational ministry.

His departure from the wealth, comfort and prestige of practicing medicine in London to pastoral ministry in a small Calvinistic Methodist church in Wales was so astounding to many in his social circles that (as his biographer Eryl Davies notes) several newspapers picked up the story and ran headlines like “Leading Doctor turns Pastor.” But if MLJ had continued to practice medicine, his name would likely be forgotten today and the majority of his patients would now be long dead. His decision to enter the ministry changed many lives for all eternity and that is why he is fondly remembered by so many.


For just over a decade, MLJ ministered in Wales, where his preaching made a considerable impact. ‘The Doctor,’ as he was affectionately known (for Doctor Who fans, that puts him way before William Hartnell!), returned to London in 1938, where he would serve at the Westminster Chapel for three decades, until his retirement in 1968. He began as the associate of G. Campbell Morgan – a renowned preacher in his own right – and eventually became the main pastor of the congregation there.


MLJ is regarded by some as the greatest evangelical preacher of the 20th century. He was both thoroughly expositional and powerfully evangelistic. He likely holds the record for the most sermons in a single expository preaching series, with his Ephesians sermons numbering 260 and taking almost eight years to complete. This suggests that he could be overly detailed in his preaching and yet he had a remarkable gift for applying his text to the hearts and doubts of modern men and women.


The Doctor was a lover of the Puritans and sought to emulate their combination of solid Reformed theology and warm, experiential piety. He was committed to evangelicalism more than a particular denominational brand (his short work, What is an Evangelical? is well worth reading) but was willing to speak out against doctrinal error in various churches, including those within the evangelical movement.


His commitment to the gospel and evangelical principles did lead to disagreements with other key evangelical statesmen who seemed to MLJ to be less committed to some of the same positions. Whereas Billy Graham is revered by almost all evangelicals today – especially in America – as the greatest evangelist and above-reproach figure in evangelicalism, Lloyd-Jones refused to co-operate with him and his crusades in the 1950s. MLJ was (rightly) concerned with Graham’s use of liberal, Roman Catholic and high church Anglican leaders and church members as ‘counsellors’ in his evangelistic outreaches and his failure to distinguish his gospel ministry from the Christ-denying positions of these kind of churches.*

In the mid-1960s MLJ had a showdown with his friend and fellow British evangelical statesman John Stott over the place of evangelicals in denominations that were increasingly liberal in their theology. At a National Assembly of Evangelicals meeting in 1966, the Doctor gave an address which called for evangelical Christians in the UK to leave their compromised denominations and pursue pan-evangelical unity in distinction to the liberal churches. Stott [ab]used his position as chair of the session to take the stage and begin rebutting what Lloyd-Jones had said and denying the need for such drastic action. The two men partially reconciled later on, but their conflicting positions on this issue polarised British evangelicals for some time to come.


But while MLJ was prepared to take a stand for what he believed were compromises of evangelical standards, he was far more active in building evangelical co-operation and institutions than he was in contending with other prominent leaders. His involvement in the InterVarsity Fellowship and the International Federation of Evangelical Students were invaluable – with the Doctor having a positive global impact on evangelical student ministry. His involvement with the Banner of Truth Trust was key in its early days to fulfilling its mission to publish valuable Christian resources that connect evangelicals with the best of their theological heritage. He also used his profile and gifts to bless the Christian Medical Fellowship, help launch the London Theological Seminary and run a local ministers fraternal in London. While his involvement with the British Evangelical Council from the late 1960s highlights his points of difference with Stott and others, it also represents his constructive efforts to continue pursuing uncompromised evangelical unity.


From his retirement from pastoral ministry in 1968, for health reasons, until his death in 1981, MLJ busied himself with speaking, writing and promoting solid Reformed theology and principled evangelical co-operation.

Martyn Lloyd-Jones was the 20th century’s paragon of the strand of British, reformed evangelicalism that includes the English martyrs, the Puritans, Charles Spurgeon and J.C. Ryle. He embodied the same doctrinal emphases as these figures that came before him and shared their grave concerns about departures from Protestant principles by the English churches.

What is the legacy of such a man today – 36 years after his death? His uncompromising approach to the principles of the Reformation and its implications for ecclesiology (how we “do church”) are probably even less popular now than they were fifty years ago. This will mean that many evangelicals view the Doctor as a rigid and polarising figure, unreasonable and unnecessarily uncooperative with those who disagree with him. But others will celebrate him as a champion of truth and tireless labourer for evangelical prosperity for the very same reasons.

Those of us with deep appreciation for MLJ’s ministry and legacy needn’t be shy about his brilliance as a preacher and evangelical leader. Liberalism, heresy and watered-down Protestantism are even more of a problem in many denominations today than they were when the Doctor sounded the alarm in the 1960s. Many evangelical Christians will be forced to leave their compromised denominations in the coming years due to incompatible beliefs about the gospel, human sexuality and other issues. Lloyd-Jones is worth emulating in the 21st century both in taking a stand for the truths that count and urging better solidarity amongst those who hold core evangelical principles in common.

Many of Martyn Lloyd-Jones’ sermons are available on audio recording through the MLJ Trust. Take the opportunity to listen to one of the greatest evangelical preacher in living memory if you’ve never heard him preach before.




*[N.B. This is the reason Billy Graham does not feature in this series of Protestant Profiles. Despite being unquestionably one of the most effective evangelists of the 20th Century and being used by God to bring countless people to Christ, his unjustified co-operation with non-evangelicals prevents me from considering him as a model Protestant. In MLJ’s words: “He is anxious to evangelise, and that is right; but whether it is equally right to be sponsored by people who in reality deny your very message is another matter.”]


D.E. Davies, “LLOYD-JONES, David Martyn” Biographical Dictionary of Evangelicals

D Martyn Lloyd-Jones, What is an Evangelical? 

Eryl Davies, Dr. D Martyn Lloyd Jones (biography)

10 Ways to Celebrate “Reformation 500”

With only a few days left until the 500th anniversary of the Protestant Reformation (Tuesday 31st October), how will you be celebrating?

Here are a few suggestions on how you can commemorate this important occasion if you don’t already have plans or need some ideas…

1) Prayer(s) of Thanksgiving

Whether you’re alone or gathered with friends next Tuesday, would you consider taking time to thank God in prayer for His mercy and kindness in bringing the Reformation about and allowing us to live in a time when we can benefit from its fruits.

There are innumerable things we could give thanks for on this occasion, but the main ones would be that we are able to access God’s Word and the clarity of the gospel of Christ in our own language, without being kept in the dark by a corrupted, religious establishment.

2) Read the Bible 

One of the best ways to celebrate the Reformation is to go to the Word of God yourself and read it carefully and regularly. As you open your Bible this week and next, it is worth pausing for a moment to recall William Tyndale‘s part in the Reformation – risking his life and eventually losing it as a result of his dedication to ensuring the Scriptures were available in English.

If regular reading of God’s Word hasn’t been part of your life recently, the Reformation anniversary offers an opportunity for re-dedication to this crucial means of grace.

3) Repent 

This is a strange suggestion to make for commemorating a historical event, but the very first of Martin Luther’s 95 theses read: When our Lord and Master Jesus Christ said, “Repent” (Mt 4:17), he willed the entire life of believers to be one of repentance. When we have a defective view (or practice!) of repentance our life of discipleship is dangerously askew.

The Catholic Church’s teaching and practice on repentance was one of its key deficiencies that drew Luther’s concern. Few of my readers would have a medieval Catholic view of what repentance looks like, but we are all prone to making it peripheral, rather than crucial to our relationship with God.

In the past week, have you taken any time to repent of thoughts, attitudes and actions that you know to be displeasing to God? Reflecting on the instigation of the Reformation confronts all of us to get serious about confessing our faults to God, asking for forgiveness and turning away from sin to Christ.

4) Familiarise yourself with some of the key doctrines and themes of the Reformation 

Could you explain why you’re a Protestant to a Roman Catholic workmate? Or break down the meaning of justification by grace through faith to a child? Or talk about the “priesthood of all believers” with a new Christian? Getting clear in your own mind the truths that were recovered and emphasised by the Reformers is one of the best ways to make the most of this 500th anniversary.

Complacent evangelical churches become less Protestant as time goes on, because many of us fail to think seriously about how and why our movement started, what its core principles have been and how they apply today.

Here are some resources that will help you grasp these key truths:

Got Questions: Five Solas (brief)

Desiring God: What are the 5 solas?  (more detailed)

Reformation Theology: Threefold Office of Christ (Prophet, Priest, King)

Timothy George on “The Priesthood of all Believers

5) Read an overview of the Reformation

As a historical event, the details and timeline of the Reformation need to be known in order to appreciate its significance properly. In the lead-up to the anniversary, you might like to read a short overview of the events and after-effects of the Reformation.

9Marks: The Sunday before the 95 theses (in fictionalised short story form)

Monergism: Background to the Reformation (pdf)

Ligonier: Why the Reformation Matters (video)

Gospel Coalition: Top Ten Moments in Reformation History

6) Attend a celebratory Reformation service 

Such a momentous anniversary is best celebrated with other Christians through corporate praise, reflection and hearing from God’s Word. If your church isn’t doing anything special to commemorate the Reformation, perhaps consider getting along to an event that is being held near you.

For those living in Brisbane (particularly on the Northside), City North Baptist Church will be holding a special service of celebration on Tuesday night of October 31st, which promises to be a great evening of fellowship and reflection. You can find details for that event here.

This weekend (28-29/10), there will be special events held at St. John’s Presbyterian Church, Annerley by the Reformation Fellowship of QLD. Queensland Theological College lecturer Dr. Mark Baddeley will speak on Saturday on the theme “What if the Reformation didn’t happen?” with sessions running 9am-2pm (with breaks for morning tea and BYO lunch). On Sunday afternoon, 2pm, at the same location, there will be a Reformation Thanksgiving service.

My own church, Enogerra Baptist, will be commencing a sermon series on the 5 solas of the Reformation from this Sunday morning at 9:30am. Sermon audio will be available online here, shortly after each Sunday.

Finally, for those on the Southside of Brisbane, consider visiting Hope Reformed Baptist Church in Slacks Creek for a Reformation-themed service this Sunday night from 5:30pm.

7) Read some biographies of the Reformers

One of the best ways to get into the Reformation is to read a bit about the lives of those God used to make it happen. You could of course peruse our own Protestant Profiles series here at Lion & Phoenix (particularly the earlier editions), but Desiring God has produced an excellent devotional series “Here we Stand” for use leading up to the anniversary, featuring short biographical accounts of key Reformation figures.

8) Watch the Luther movie or a documentary on the Reformation

I’ve not yet seen the Luther movie, so I can’t vouch for its quality or historical fidelity, but I’m keen to watch it during this season. Even if it turns out to have its deficiencies, I’m sure it will have the capacity to generate dicussion about the events it depicts. You may also like to watch a documentary detailing the events of the Reformation in place of a dramatisation. [Update: this documentary looks like a winner]

9) Read some of the key documents that came out of the Reformation 

If you’ve never read Martin Luther’s 95 theses, there will never be a more fitting time to peruse them than now (this article may assist you with understanding the context and their ongoing relevance)! But there are many other things you could read to appreciate the early reformers. The introduction to Luther’s Romans  commentary touches on key points of his theology that were at stake in the Reformation. If you’d like to read an actual book by the man, his Bondage of the Will is short and readily accessible online and in print.

You could also try a section of Calvin’s Institutes which covers Reformed theology more broadly, or read through the Heidelberg Catechism – one of the most important summaries of Reformed teaching in simple Q&A format.

10) Internalize the truths of the Reformation and live them out!

An appreciation of the Reformation will lead us to see that the purpose of our salvation (and therefore our saved life hereafter) is the glory of God (“to God alone be the glory” – the final sola of the Reformation). This will cause us to re-engage with crucial Scriptures like: “So, whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God” (1 Cor 10:31, ESV) and “present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship” (Rom 12:1b).

An appreciation of justification by grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ alone will lead us to look less to ourselves, our achievements and abilities and more to the finished work of our crucified and risen Saviour. It will both humble us and make us hopeful: steering us away from self-exaltation and self-condemnation.

An appreciation of being the priesthood of all believers will lead us to get on with the business of ministering to other Christians, not leaving it up to the “professional clergy” (that is, expecting your pastor to do all the work of the gospel).

An appreciation of the Reformation will lead us to embrace the principle semper reformanda “always reforming.” We want ourselves, our families, our churches and our communities to constantly be challenged and changed by the truths revealed in the Word of God.

And an appreciation of the clear, bright and pure gospel recovered and re-emphasised by the Reformation will move us to share the precious good news of Jesus with others – far and wide.

How will you celebrate 500 years of God’s grace outflowing through the Reformation?

Protestant Profiles #29: J. Gresham Machen

J. Gresham Machen (1881 – 1937)


Born: Baltimore, United States
Role: theologian, Princeton university scholar, pastor, founder of Westminster Theological Seminary, Orthodox Presbyterian Church (America) & Independent Board for Presbyterian Foreign Missions.
Emphases: historical, doctrinal/confessional Christianity; plenary inspiration/inerrancy of Scripture; reality of the supernatural elements of Christianity; full divinity & humanity of Christ; reality of sin; penal substitutionary atonement; exclusivity of salvation in Christ
Protested against: theological liberalism

J. Gresham Machen was schooled in the Westminster Catechism of his mother’s Presbyterian faith and grew up attending Presbyterian churches with his parents. In his early twenties, he entered Princeton Theological Seminary – the fortress of American Reformed academia and ministry training. He graduated in 1905 with dual degrees in theology and liberal arts and travelled to Germany to undertake further studies, while evaluating his future career paths.

Machen experienced personal difficulties as a result of being confronted with the theological liberalism that characterised the German theological environment. While wrestling with the incompatibility between the conservative, Bible-based Presbyterianism of his upbringing and the critical, modernistic, scholastic faith of those he was studying under – Machen eventually came down squarely on the side of theologically conservative,  confessional Presbyterianism.

Returning home to take up positions at Princeton and within the Presbyterian Church, Machen became perhaps the most prominent champion of reformed orthodoxy against the advent of theological liberalism in early 20th century America. As an academic he challenged the liberal scholars of biblical studies by refuting their theories about Paul’s theology departing from Jesus’ teachings. As a theological writer, he attacked liberalism as a different religion that claimed to be Christianity, but differed from it substantially. His best known work, Christianity and Liberalism, remains insightful as an exploration of the key differences between the two different kinds of faith that claim the name of Christianity even today.

The Fundamentalist-Modernist controversy – over the relationship between Christianity’s core doctrines, Scriptures and creeds and the rationalistic mindset of modernism – was the major battle in American churches in the early 1900s. What at first appeared to be a contest concerning the public Christian ‘mind’ became a vicious war for the heart and soul of the church.

Liberals in almost every denomination perverted almost every key orthodox doctrine imaginable in order to ‘reconcile’ their ancient faith with the modern world. The miraculous and supernatural elements of Christianity were downplayed or even denied: Christ’s virgin birth could be explained away; the signs and wonders of the Old and New Testament were pre-modern, unscientific descriptions of natural, explainable phenomena; Scripture itself was not divinely inspired in the way it was commonly understood.

Most seriously, doctrines that pertained directly to salvation, such as the nature of Christ’s atonement and the historical reality of His resurrection were increasingly questioned by ministers and theologians who perceived these dogma as being out of step with modern sensibilities.

Machen pulled no punches in fighting against these pernicious reinterpretations of the Christian faith. But his attempts to keep liberalism from taking over the Presbyterian Church eventually resulted in his expulsion from it – putting him in that great line of rejected reformers who were forced to carry on their work outside of the church they sought to transform for the better.

In 1929, he had founded the Westminster Theological Seminary as an alternative to Princeton Seminary – which was increasingly tolerant of liberal theology and less committed to the robust Reformed theology of previous generations of faculty. A few years later he set up a rival Presbyterian mission sending-agency to the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, due to dissatisfaction with the latter’s vetting of missionary candidates in line with orthodox theological standards. This was too much for his denomination, which took action against Machen, resulting in the suspension of his ordination in 1935.

Together with other ministers who were gravely concerned at the state of their denomination, Machen formed the Presbyterian Church of America (which was forced to change its name, for legal reasons to the ‘Orthodox Presbyterian Church,’ as it remains today). It was a denomination where the fundamentals of the faith and subscription to the Westminster Confession of Faith would be treasured and guarded by all its ministers.

Machen died of pneumonia just 6 months after the formation of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church. While this meant that he would play little to no role in the development, growth and ongoing activity of the new denomination, his theology and outlook were profoundly imprinted upon the OPC and the other institutions he was instrumental in founding and thus he continued to have a considerable impact upon them long after his death.

John Frame summarised this impact with the following words:

J. Gresham Machen, a lifelong bachelor, left no biological children but many spiritual ones. The story of American conservative evangelical Reformed theology in the twentieth century is largely the story of those children.[1]

“Machen’s Warrior Children,” as Frame has described these theological descendants, have continued to contend for the truths their forefather stood for in the face of widespread liberalism and doctrinal infidelity. While by no means all of Westminster Theological Seminary’s graduates would appreciate that moniker, its breadth of notable alumni demonstrates something of Machen’s lasting impact upon reformed evangelicalism.

Popular pastors and preachers such as Tim Keller and Alistair Begg; theologians such as Wayne Grudem and Kevin Vanhoozer; apologists such as Francis Schaeffer and Robert Bowman; and seminary presidents like Edmund Clowney (of WTS itself) and Philip Ryken (of Wheaton College) are all graduates of the seminary. The current Anglican Archbishop of Sydney, Australia, Glenn Davies is also an alumnus of WTS.

Thus, Machen’s legacy has had a considerable impact on many of the shapers of contemporary, 21st century evangelicalism in America and internationally. 80 years after his death, there is still a great need for godly and faithful Christians to contend earnestly for the faith in their respective denominations and, indeed, form new institutions and even church networks where reform proves impossible. Machen should be a valued guide to any evangelical church leader who finds themselves in such a situation.

You can read an online copy of Machen’s Christianity and Liberalism here.


[1] John Frame, “Machen’s Warrior Children”

P.C. Kemeny, “Machen, J.G.” Biographical Dictionary of Evangelicals.

“John Gresham Machen” wikipedia


Protestant Profiles #28: Amy Carmichael

Amy Carmichael (1867 – 1951)


Born: Millisle, Northern Ireland
Role: missionary, children’s shelter and rescue missions founder
Emphases: evangelism and love towards the outcasts, vulnerable and needy
Protested against: Hindu temple prostitution

Amy Carmichael was an irrepressible Irish girl who ended her life as an 84 year old invalid in India. The period in-between saw her impact countless lives in the U.K. and India and become one of the most well-known Christian women of the 20th century.

As a young woman she was heavily involved in ministry to girls who worked in factories in Belfast and later in Manchester. A Sunday school class for these young women grew into regular meetings at a Welcome hall, where Carmichael and others ministered to this group who were being neglected by many of the churches in the area.

In her mid-twenties, she had a strong sense that she should volunteer for missionary service in Asia. From one perspective, this decision appears questionable, as Carmichael suffered from neuralgia and was probably not physically up to the rigours of overseas, cross-cultural mission. She arrived in Japan in 1893 and began to reach out to people with the gospel, but was forced to leave due to illness after only a year.

After some time to recover, Carmichael sought to begin afresh in India, where it was hoped the climate would prove kinder to her health. She never left India again, until her death in 1951. Carmichael consistently sought to share Christ with people in India and display His love in the way she loved – but there were also grave social issues in the country which were difficult for a compassionate Christian to ignore.

Temple prostitution was a heinous practice of some local Hindus, which robbed many young girls of their dignity. Carmichael began to provide shelter to those who did not wish to persist in these circumstances and resisted efforts by locals to bring the children and youths back to the temple and force them to return to exploitative practices. She started a home for girls in 1901 and another one for boys in 1905.

The Donhnavur Fellowship, as Carmichael’s ministry came to be known, is still going today and their website recounts the growth of the community:

Baby nurseries led on to cottage homes, schools for all ages from toddlers to teenagers, a dairy farm, rice lands, fruit and vegetable gardens, tailoring departments, kitchens, laundries, workshops, and building offices with teams of builders, carpenters and electricians. From the small beginning of one obedient woman and one small child came a ‘model village’, complete with its own simple Indian facilities and even a hospital to serve the sick and in which to preach the Gospel to the thousands from the villages who flocked to it for help.[1]

During the past 113 years, about 1875 girls and 670 boys have been rescued from situations of moral and physical danger and brought into the safety and love of the Dohnavur Family.  There are hundreds of men and women, who grew up in Dohnavur, who are now serving  in many different professions and occupations throughout India, and overseas as well.[2]

Carmichael spent the last 20 years of her life basically bedridden, after a nasty accident in 1931. Despite this she continued to exercise spiritual leadership and organisational management of the activities in the Dohnavur community. She never married, but was in every sense a spiritual mother to hundreds of Indian children and adults, whom had come into her care.

Amy Carmichael is an excellent example of someone who “should never have become a missionary” and yet became one of the most significant servants of the gospel in the past century. The illness that brought an abrupt end to her service in Japan must have seemed like a dead-end at the time, and yet over half a century of fruitful ministry in India lay ahead of her. Likewise, her crippling injuries in her sixties would have caused many to give up or wind back their efforts for Jesus, but Carmichael somehow continued to press on and bless so many. Truly God’s strength was displayed through her weakness.

Carmichael was once asked about her experience of missionary life, to which she famously replied: “”Missionary life is simply a chance to die.” God alone knows how many thousands of lives have been impacted by this woman’s willingness to “die” for the sake of Christ and His love.




L. Wilson, “Amy Carmichael,” Biographical Dictionary of Evangelicals. 

“Amy Carmichael” wikipedia.

Protestant Profiles #27: Abraham Kuyper

Abraham Kuyper (1837 – 1920)


Born: Maasluis, Holland
Role: pastor, theologian, church leader, Prime Minister of the Netherlands
Emphases: Calvinism, divine sovereignty, political pluralism, “sphere sovereignty”/pillarisation of society, work of the Holy Spirit
Protested against: liberal/modernist theology; political revolutionarism, non-Christian ‘worldviews’

Abraham Kuyper, the son of a Dutch Reformed minister, followed his father’s footsteps to study theology and enter the ministry in 1863, at age 25. Throughout his studies and into the early years of his ministry, Kuyper’s faith was infected with a theological modernism that led him to filter the truths of the gospel through a rationalistic framework. He was a spiritual bankrupt whose job was supposed to be instructing others in a faith he did not personally possess in truth.

It was Pietje Balthus, a single woman in his first congregation, who God used to give Kuyper a good shake-up and cause him to reconsider the evangelical faith. Balthus reportedly turned the tables on Kuyper during his first pastoral visit to her and confronted him with spiritual realities concerning salvation and eternity. Kuyper repeatedly returned for conversations with her and the Holy Spirit worked to change his heart and renew his mind in the gospel.

A few years later, Kuyper was serving as a pastor in Amsterdam – the largest city in the Kingdom of the Netherlands – where he became one of the nation’s leading proponents of Reformed, evangelical orthodoxy. He acquired key newspapers to promote Reformed theology and Christian thinking in Dutch society and became increasingly active in various religious and political matters.

This mixture of a principled drive for religious and political reform led to Kuyper founding his own political party in 1879; a Reformed university in 1880; and a breakaway denomination, committed to the historical Reformed confessions, in 1886. These three endeavours encapsulated the multi-faceted significance of Kuyper as a political leader, church leader and internationally renowned theologian.

Kuyper was involved in Dutch politics from 1876 until his death in 1920. His Anti-Revolutionary Party was formed as a response to troubling, revolutionary manifestations of popular sovereignty in Europe, especially the French Revolution and the rise of Marxism. It sought to approach democratic politics from a uniquely Calvinistic/Protestant standpoint and build strategic alliances with Catholic political forces in order to withstand socialist and liberal movements within society that operated on assumptions that were antithetical to Christianity.

Kuyper’s great contributions to Christian political and social thought are “principled pluralism,” “pillarisation” and “sphere sovereignty.” Kuyper believed that when a nation like the Netherlands was apportioned into several major groupings with significantly different religious convictions (i.e. Reformed; Catholic; Socialist and ‘Liberal’) that each should have the freedom to operate as distinct society within one the nation-state and that the state should not preference or discriminate with respect to any single group, nor unnecessarily interfere with their self-expression of their religious identities.

Principled pluralism was about being committed to religious freedom, power-sharing and mutual, civic respect between such groups, rather than a “winner-takes-it-all” or “revenge-cycle” approach to national politics. Pillarisation was the belief that each group would do best if they were allowed to form and operate their own institutions (churches, schools, media etc;) in line with their convictions. “Sphere sovereignty” denied the state unrestrained authority over each area of people’s lives, by insisting that different spheres of human life had legitimate authority to govern their own affairs (eg; churches, families and schools were not properly under the jurisdictional control of the state government).

Kuyper made an enormous contribution to Dutch and European politics through his promotion of these principles, the effect of which is still seen in some European countries and Christian Democratic Parties today. His political success saw him serve one term as Dutch Prime Minister from 1901-1905. Some of his most significant achievements during office were related to his vision for robust, independent religious schools throughout the Netherlands.

As a church leader, Kuyper led a Reformed resurgence in the Netherlands, which put him at loggerheads with proponents of the modernistic theology he himself had held to as a young man. Like Martin Luther’s attempt to reform the Catholic Church, Kuyper’s efforts at reform were repudiated by the hierarchy of the Dutch Reformed Church and he ended up on the outside. Kuyper’s followers and allies became known as the Doleantie – a Dutch term describing profound grief. They soon merged with an earlier breakaway denomination from the Dutch Reformed Church and established the “Reformed Churches in the Netherlands” in 1892, as a Reformed-orthodox alternative to the increasingly liberal state church.

As a theologian and academic scholar, Kuyper led the Free University in Amsterdam and ensured that students of the Reformed faith received a quality tertiary education that aligned with their religious convictions. He wrote and lectured in theology and socio-political issues, producing an Encyclopedia of Sacred Theology, a serialisation of articles on the Work of the Holy Spirit and delivering his famous Lectures on Calvinism at Princeton University in the United States.

The impact of Kuyper’s legacy has been widespread in Reformed Christianity in the century since his life. There are a range of NeoCalvinist figures and institutions in the United States that are heavily indebted to Kuyper’s thought and a number of organisations seek to approach political and cultural issues in a manner that follows his example and implements his key principles. On the darker side, Kuyper’s concept of pillarisation was bastardised by Afrikaners to justify the racial discrimination of apartheid in South Africa for many years, while theonomists and Reconstructionists in the United States have also misappropriated his ideas to claim support for their vision of a nation rearranged under biblical laws.

Kuyper’s most famous quote: “There is not a square inch in the whole domain of our human existence over which Christ, who is sovereign over all, does not cry ‘Mine!'” summarises his significance as a Protestant figure. His belief in the absolute sovereignty of God led him to earnestly seek the reform of church and society so that God’s people could live in a way that declared the glory of their Heavenly King.

Kuyper did not possess all the answers in response to the challenges of modernism, nor can we expect him to provide a fully-formed response to the post-modern era we find ourselves in. But he is an invaluable, historical dialogue-partner for Christians in the West today who are seeking to live out their faith in ‘liberal,’ ‘secular’ ‘democracies’ and wrestling with how to do so in a way that is faithful to the breadth and depth of our evangelical convictions.


J.D. Bratt, “KUYPER, Abraham” Biographical Dictionary of Evangelicals.

“Abraham Kuyper” wikipedia

P.H.A. van Krieken “Some third-hand information about Abraham Kuyper’s conversion”

Eric Miller, “How a Dutch Neo-Calvinist helped Birth an Intellectual Movement”


Protestant Profiles #26: Charles Spurgeon

Charles Spurgeon (1834 – 1892)


Born: Kelvedon, Essex, England
Role: influential Baptist preacher, pastor, author, tract-writer
Emphases: justification by grace through faith, sola Scriptura, penal substitutionary atonement, Calvinism, believer’s baptism
Protested against: Roman Catholicism; baptismal regeneration; theological liberalism/the downgrading of evangelical doctrine by fellow Baptists (and others)

Charles Spurgeon grew up in a thoroughly Christian environment, where classics like Pilgrim’s Progress and Foxe’s Book of Martyrs were part of his childhood diet. But he had a conversion experience at the age of fifteen when he heard a Methodist preaching from Isaiah 42.

Less than 2 years later he was already pastoring a church, aged 17. Thus the man who would come to be widely known as “The Prince of Preachers” began his ministry as the “boy preacher.”

Spurgeon became pastor of the New Park Street Chapel (a prominent London Baptist church) in 1854, before he had turned 20. It was this pastorate that propelled him into great renown as a preacher in England. Seven years after taking on this role, the London Metropolitan Tabernacle was built to accommodate the huge crowds who wished to hear Spurgeon’s weekly preaching. During Spurgeon’s ministry, the Tabernacle had the largest regular attendance of any congregation in the UK during the 19th century and became the largest Baptist church in the world.

Spurgeon impacted thousands upon thousands of lives through his powerful preaching and his other ministries, including the founding of orphanages,urban missions, a pastor’s training college and his numerous publications. He was able to present the gospel with great clarity and conviction and saw countless people come to a saving knowledge of Jesus through his sermons. He was by no means a fanciful or theoretical preacher – but had a heart for the ordinary man and woman. This is well displayed in his printed sermons, but particularly in his John Ploughman’s Talk, where he assumes the persona of a rustic, farming man and dispenses Christian wisdom to the people of the land.

Spurgeon’s notability lies chiefly in his gift for faithful preaching and he famously preached to the biggest indoor crowd on record in 1861 (more than 23 000 people) and to Britons from all sections of society (possibly even an incognito Queen Victoria on one occasion!). More than 3500 of his sermons have remained in print – a record which exceeds any other figure in Christian history. While there is no way of accurately determining how many people Spurgeon preached to during his ministry, it has been estimated at as many as ten million.

But Spurgeon’s significance as a Protestant figure is connected to his epitomisation of one branch of Protestantism (the Reformed Baptist movement) and his defense of the truths recovered at the Reformation against Catholicism and the emerging theological liberalism of his day.

Spurgeon was staunchly opposed to the doctrines of Catholicism which necessitated the Reformation, at a time when many of his contemporaries in the Anglican church were downplaying the differences between the different strands of Christianity and some were even embracing Rome as converts. In a tract from 1865, Spurgeon blasts the situation in the Anglican church as he saw it:

There seems to be an unlimited license for papistical persons to do as they please in the Anglican Establishment. How long are these abominations to be borne with, and how far are they yet to be carried? Protestant Dissenters, how can you so often truckle to a Church which is assuming the rags of the old harlot more and more openly every day? Alliance with true believers is one thing, but union with a Popish sect is quite another. Be not ye partakers with them. Protestantism owed much to you in past ages, will you not now raise your voice and show the ignorant and the priest-ridden the tendencies of all these mummeries, and the detestable errors of the Romish Church and of its Anglican sister.

In the same tract he urged evangelicals within the Church of England to recognise the seriousness of their predicament and leave the church (an issue which remains live more than 150 years later).

When Spurgeon’s own denomination, the Baptist Union began to compromise its own commitment to sound doctrine – through flirtation with textual criticism, theological liberalism and the Darwinistic theory of evolution – he showed that he was not only prepared to dispense this advice to others, but to follow through on it himself. In 1887, he withdrew himself and the Tabernacle from the British Baptist Union and remained separated from it for the remainder of his life and ministry. His supporters within the Union pushed for English Baptists to adopt an Evangelical statement of faith, but this did not eventuate – effectively demonstrating that Spurgeon’s concerns about the theological health of the denomination were valid.

Spurgeon died at his place of frequent vacation and recuperation in Mentone, France in 1892, aged 57. His life was widely celebrated in England in the wake of his passing into glory. Spurgeon was arguably the greatest ever figure in the Baptist movement (even more so if we look at the history of Reformed or Particular Baptists in the UK) and possibly the greatest English-speaking preacher in the history of the church.

While some will balk at what they perceive to be dogmatism and divisiveness in his approach to Catholicism and theological liberalism, to dismiss his example of biblical faithfulness on such a basis would be foolish and even perilous. Given that our own times are filled with all too many convictionless, theological cowards and dithering denominations, Spurgeon’s uncompromising stance for clear, evangelical truth challenges us to ask a key question in this 500th anniversary of the Reformation. Do we own these truths as our own (and even suffer for them) – or let unfaithful Christians and false teachers muddy the waters?


“Charles Spurgeon” wikipedia

J. Armstrong, “SPURGEON, Charles” Dictionary of Evangelical Biography

Mark Hopkins “Downgrade Controversy

Spurgeon, Sword and Trowel No. 16 “Tract against Romish Anglicanism

Patricia Kruppa, “The Life and Times of Charles H. Spurgeon